Owing to the objections of Mabini to some provisions of the constitution, Aguinaldo did not immediately promulgate it. The Congress leaders compromised with Mabini by agreeing to insert amendments to satisfy the President's closest adviser. On January 21, 1899, Aguinaldo finally promulgated the Malolos Constitution. Earlier, on January 2, he formed the cabinet as follows:
The Council of Government, or the Cabinet, according to Mabini, "belongs to no party, nor does it desire to form one; it stands for nothing save the interest of the fatherland."
On January 23, 1899, the Philippine Republic was inaugurated at Malolos in colorful ceremonies. Aguinaldo took his oath of office after having been informed that he has been proclaimed President of the Republic. The Malolos Constitution was read article by article, and the army took its oath of loyalty before the President. A review of troops and procession followed.
To make the event more memorable, Aguinaldo issued a decree granting pardon to all Spanish prisoners of war who were not members of the Spanish regular army and at the same time, granting to Spaniards and other aliens the right to engage in business within the limits of the Republic.
History of the Filipino People. Teodoro A. Agoncillo
On the sunny morning of January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic, popularly known as the Malolos Republic, was inaugurated amidst colorful ceremonies at the Barasoain Church. This was also the first republic in Asia.
In this inaugural address, President Aguinaldo expressed his congratulations
to the members of the Malolos Congress for drafting the Malolos Constitution,
to the armed forces for winning the country's freedom by force of arms,
and to the Filipino people for their cooperation and sacrifices in the
struggle for independence. He stated the aspiration of the nation "to live
under the democratic regime of the Philippine Republic, free from the yoke
of any foreign domination." In conclusion, he declared:
The Philippines: A Unique Nation. Dr. Sonia M. Zaide
Pomp and Ceremony
On January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic was inaugurated. The people rejoiced; appropriate festivities marked the day throughout the land.
In Malolos, the inauguration ceremonies were typical of the elite. Aguinaldo took his oath of office as President of the Philippine Republic wearing formal attire "with top hat, white gloves, and bow tie" and carrying a "tasseled gold-knobbed cane." The food at the inaugural banquet was European and the menu written in French.
The Philippines: A Past Revisited. Renato Constantino
Top History LinksPhilippine Centennial
Heroes of the Revolution
Mga Pangulo ng Pilipinas
Philam War Documents
Philippine Revolution Documents
Filipino SpiritEvolution of the Filipino Flag
Pledge of Allegiance
1956: Lupang Hinirang (Filipino)
1934: Philippine Hymn (English)
1899: Filipinas (Spanish)
1898: Marcha Nacional(melody)